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Master the List of 616 English Irregular Verbs: A Comprehensive Guide to Perfecting Your English* Vocabulary

List of 616 English IrregularVerbs

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Master the List of 616 English Irregular Verbs: A Comprehensive Guide to Perfecting Your English* Vocabulary

 

A comprehensive list of 616 English irregular verbs, including their base form, past simple, past participle and definitions. Click on Show Forms to see the 3rd person singular and the present participle instead of the definitions. If you click on Show Groups, you will see the verbs in groups that change in the same way.



A

 

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Abide

Abode/Abided

Abode/Abided/Abidden

To continue To reside\live

Aby/Abey

Abought

Abought

To make amends for something wrong

Alight

Alit/Alighted

Alit/Alighted

To get off a bus, train, etc.

Arise

Arose

Arisen

To originate

To get up from horizontal position, out of bed To come into existence

Awake

Awoke

Awoken

To stop sleeping and become conscious

 

B

 

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Backbite

Backbit

Backbitten

To speak badly about someone

Backfit

Backfit

Backfit

To fit new parts into an older machine that weren't available when the machine was made

Backlight

Backlit

Backlit

To illuminate from behind (photography)

Backslide

Backslid

Backslid/Backslidden

To stop making progress and start regressing

Be

Was/Were

Been

To exist, live or occur.

To have as a quality or a state An auxiliary verb

Bear

Bore

Born/Borne

To carry To tolerate

To give birth to

Beat

Beat

Beaten

To hit repeatedly

Become

Became

Become

To come into existence

Bedight

Bedight/Bedighted

Bedight/Bedighted

To adorn, decorate

Befall

Befell

Befallen

To happen

To happen to somebody or something

Beget

Begot/Begat

Begotten

To cause something to happen To procreate

Begin

Began

Begun

To start something

Begird

Begirt/Begirded

Begirt

To encircle

Behight

Behight

Behight/Behoten

To promise or vow To order

Behold

Beheld

Beheld

To become conscious of by seeing

Belay

Belaid/Belayed

Belaid/Belayed

To secure a boat with a rope To tie up

Bend

Bent

Bent

To curve something by distorting its shape


Bereave

Bereft

Bereft/Bereaved

To lose a relative through their death To deprive

Beseech

Besought/Beseeched

Besought/Beseeched

To ask someone very insistently to do something

Beset

Beset

Beset

To be restricted and occupied by difficulties

 

Bespeak

 

Bespoke

 

Bespoken

To be a signal or symbol of something To set aside or reserve something

To ask for

Bestrew

Bestrewed

Bestrewed/Bestrewn

To cover a surface by throwing things about randomly

Bestride

Bestrode

Bestridden

To sit or stand with one leg on either side of something

Bet

Bet

Bet

To risk money against the result of a future event

Betake

Betook

Betaken

To go to a place

Bethink

Bethought

Bethought

To think about something To remind yourself

Beweep

Bewept

Bewept

To cry for or over someone or something

Bid

Bid

Bid

To make an offer of money or services

Bid

Bade

Bidden

To command or urge someone to do something

Bide

Bided/Bode

Bided

To wait for To tolerate To withstand

Bind

Bound

Bound

To tie something with string, or similar, to hold it

Bite

Bit

Bitten

To cut or hold with teeth

Blaw

Blawed

Blawn

To blow

Bleed

Bled

Bled

To lose blood through a cut in the skin

Blend

Blended/Blent

Blended/Blent

To mix together

Bless

Blessed/Blest

Blessed/Blest

To wish or confer happiness To make holy

Blow

Blew

Blown

To move air, wind and gases

Bottle-feed

Bottle-fed

Bottle-fed

To feed a baby with a bottle

Bowstring

Bowstrung/Bowstringe d

Bowstrung

To strangle with the string from a bow

Break

Broke

Broken

To cause something to separate into at least two pieces

Breast-feed

Breast-fed

Breast-fed

To feed a baby with breast milk

Breed

Bred

Bred

To produce animals or plants by controlling their reproduction

Bring

Brought

Brought

To carry or convey something to the place where you are going

Broadcast

Broadcast/Broadcasted

Broadcast/Broadcasted

To transmit radio or TV signals

Browbeat

Browbeat

Browbeat/Browbeaten

To put pressure on someone or bully them to do something

Build

Built

Built

To construct

Burn

Burnt/Burned

Burnt/Burned

To consume or be consumed by fire

Burst

Burst

Burst

To break something open, usually by internal pressure, such as a balloon with too much air in it

Bust

Bust

Bust

To break


Buy

Bought

Bought

To acquire something in exchange for money

 

C

 

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Cast

Cast

Cast

To throw or project something

 

Catch

 

Caught

 

Caught

To receive

To stop and hold a moving object, usually with your hands

To make something unable to escape

Cheerlead

Cheerled

Cheerled

To cheer and support a team in an organised group

Chide

Chid

Chid/Chidden

To tell somebody off when they have done something wrong

Choose

Chose

Chosen

To select

Clap

Clapped/Clapt

Clapped/Clapt

To hit your hands together to make a sound to show approval

To make a loud noise, like thunder

Clear-cut

Clear-cut

Clear-cut

To cut down all trees in an area

Cleave

Cleft/Cleaved/Clove

Cleft/Cleaved/Cloven

To separate or divide something, often with force

To stick or hold together

Cleek

Claught/Claucht/Cleek ed

Cleeked

To grasp or take hold of

Clepe

Cleped

Cleped/Ycleped/Yclept

To call or name

Cling

Clung

Clung

To hold on to or to stick to

Clothe

Clad/Clothed

Clad/Clothed

To dress someone or provide them with clothes

Colorbreed

Colorbred

Colorbred

To breed an animal to be of a particular color

Colorcast

Colorcast

Colorcast

To broadcast in color

Come

Came

Come

To move towards or to arrive at a specified place, time or situation

Cost

Cost

Cost

The amount of money required to buy something; it costs five dollars.

Cost-cut

Cost-cut

Cost-cut

To redcuce costs or expenditure

Counterdraw

Counterdrew

Counterdrawn

To copy by tracing

Counterlight

Counterlit

Counterlit

To light something directly from opposite sides

Cowrite

Cowrote

Cowritten

To write with someone

Crash-dive

Crash-dived/Crash- dove

Crash-dived

To go down very quickly

Creep

Crept

Crept

To move along the ground lying down

Creep-feed

Creep-fed

Creep-fed

To feed young animals in a special area that adult animals can't get in

Crib-bite

Crib-bit

Crib-bitten

To bite its manger and swallow air (of a horse)

Cross-bite

Cross-bit

Cross-bitten

To thwart or stop something happening by deception

Cross-string

Cross-strung

Cross-strung

To place bass strings on a piano across the treble strings

Crossbreed

Crossbred

Crossbred

To breed animals or plants of different species, like a mule, which is a crossbreed of a donkey and a horse


Crosscut

Crosscut

Crosscut

To move between scenes or stories in a film or narrative

Crosslight

Crosslit

Crosslit

To illuminate from different sides, but not directly opposite

Crow

Crowed/Crew

Crowed

To boast

To utter a sound indicating pleasure

Cut

Cut

Cut

To break the surface of something with a knife or similar tool

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Dare

Dared/Durst

Dared

To have sufficient courage

Daydream

Daydreamt/Daydream t

Daydreamt/Daydreamt

To have dream-like thoughts when a wake To have a fantasy

Deal

Dealt

Dealt

To distribute, especially playing cards in games

Deep-freeze

Deep-froze

Deep-frozen

To freeze or store frozen

To suspend progress or activity

Dig

Dug

Dug

To make a hole in the ground

Dight

Dight/Dighted

Dight/Dighted

To dictate orders

Dispread

Dispread

Dispread

To spread out

Disprove

Disproved

Disproven/Disproved

To prove that something is fale or wrong

Dive

Dived/Dove

Dived

To jump head first into water To fall quickly

Do

Did

Done

To perform or carry out

Dogfight

Dogfought

Dogfought

To fight in aeroplanes

To arrange a fight between dogs for sport

Dow

Dought/Dowed

Dought/Dowed

To have the ability to do something To do well

Draw

Drew

Drawn

To make a picture using a pen or pencil

Dream

Dreamt/Dreamed

Dreamt/Dreamed

To see visual images while sleeping

Drink

Drank

Drunk

To consume liquids

Drip-feed

Drip-fed

Drip-fed

To feed someone with fluids going into the vein

To release information very slowly, bit by bit

Drive

Drove

Driven

To operate and control a car or other vehicle

Dwell

Dwelt

Dwelt

To reside or live somewhere

 

E

 

 

 

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Eat

Ate

Eaten

To consume solid food

End-run

End-ran

End-run

To avoid doing something by cheating or deceit

Engird

Engirt

Engirt

To encircle, encompass

Engrave

Engraved

Engraved/Engraven

To carve letters or a pattern into the surface of something

Enwind

Enwound

Enwound

To make into a coil

To wrap around something

 

 

 

 

Irregular Verbs

 

 

 

 

 

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D


 

F

 

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Fall

Fell

Fallen

To move downwards or to the ground

Farebeat

Farebeat

Farebeaten

To avoid paying fares when using public transport

Fast-cut

Fast-cut

Fast-cut

To cut quickly from one scene to another in a film

Feed

Fed

Fed

To give or supply food

Feel

Felt

Felt

To sense by touch

To experience an emotion, or sensation

Fight

Fought

Fought

To try to hurt or kill someone in combat or war

Find

Found

Found

To discover something either by chance or when looking for it

 

Fit

 

Fit/Fitted

 

Fit/Fitted

To be the correct size, for clothes, etc. (fit/fit/fit)

To measure someone for size (fit fit/fitted/ fit/fitted)

Flash-freeze

Flash-froze

Flash-frozen

To freeze food very rapidly to preserve taste and nutrients

Flee

Fled

Fled

To run away in order to find safety

Fling

Flung

Flung

To throw or move something suddenly

Floodlight

Floodlit

Floodlit

To use powerful lights to illuminate something outside at night

Fly

Flew

Flown

To move through the air To travel by aeroplane

Flyblow

Flyblew

Flyblown

To contaminate by laying eggs, the way a fly does

Forbear

Forbore

Forborne/Forborn

Not to use or talk about something

Forbid

Forbade/Forbad

Forbidden

To prohibit

Force-feed

Force-fed

Force-fed

To feed someone who refuses or doesn't want to eat

Fordo/Foredo

Fordid

Fordone

To ruin or destroy

Forecast

Forecast/Forecasted

Forecast/Forecasted

To predict the future

Forefeel

Forefelt

Forefelt

To have a feeling before something happens To have a premonition

Forego

Forewent

Foregone

To preceed something To go without something

Foreknow

Foreknew

Foreknown

To know something beforehand

Forerun

Foreran

Forerun

To go before something

To show that something is going to happen

Foresee

Foresaw

Foreseen

To predict or see the future

Foreshow

Foreshowed

Forshowed/Foreshown

To show something or make it known beforehand

To foretell

Forespeak

Forespoke

Forespoken

To predict

To speak of something beforehand

Foretell

Foretold

Foretold

To predict the future

Forget

Forgot

Forgotten

To be unable to remember something

Forgive

Forgave

Forgiven

To pardon or stop being angry with someone who has offended you

Forlese

Forlore

Forlorn

To lose completely


Forsake

Forsook

Forsaken

To give something up To abandon

Forswear

Forswore

Forsworn

To make a false promise or oath

Fraught

Fraught/Fraughted

Fraught/Fraughted

To stock

To load a ship, etc To hire a ship, etc

Free-fall

Free-fell

Free-fallen

To drop or fall suddenly

To fall through the air without opening a parachute

Freeze

Froze

Frozen

To make liquids into solids by cold temperatures

To store food below zero degrees centigrade

Frostbite

Frostbit

Frostbitten

To injure or damage part of the body through extreme cold

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Gainsay

Gainsaid

Gainsaid

To contradict or deny

Geld

Gelded/Gelt

Gelded/Gelt

To castrate an animal

Get

Got

Got/Gotten

To obtain, catch or receive

Ghostwrite

Ghostwrote

Ghostwritten

To write for someone else, who will put their name as the author

Gild

Gilt/Gilded

Gilt/Gilded

To cover something with a thin layer of gold

Gin

Gan

Gan

To begin something

Gird

Girded/Girt

Girded/Girt

To secure or encirle something with a belt or bend

Give

Gave

Given

To offer something as a present

Gnaw

Gnawed

Gnawed/Gnawn

To bite or chew

 

To cause worry

Go

Went

Gone/Been

To travel to a place

Grave

Graved

Graven/Graved

To dig To carve

To fix in the memory

Grind

Ground

Ground

To break something into a powder

Grow

Grew

Grown

To increase in size

 

H

 

 

 

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Hagride

Hagrode

Hagridden

To torment or cause nightmares

Halterbreak

Halterbroke

Halterbroken

To break a horse in, to get it used to wearing a halter

Hamstring

Hamstrung/Hamstring ed

Hamstrung/Hamstringed

To make things difficult for someone doing something

Hand-feed

Hand-fed

Hand-fed

To give food by hand

Hand-ride

Hand-rode

Hand-ridden

To control an animal by hand

Handsew

Handsewed

Handsewn/Handsewed

To sew by hand

Handwrite

Handwrote

Handwritten

To write with a pen or pencil rather than a word processor

Hang

Hung/Hanged

Hung/Hanged

To suspend from a support

 

 

Irregular Verbs

 

 

 

6 of 21

 

 

UsingEnglish.c

 

 

G


 

 

 

To execute someone by supending them by the neck

Have

Had

Had

To possess To do

An auxiliary verb

Hear

Heard

Heard

To detect or perceive sound

Heave

Heaved/Hove

Heaved/Hove

To lift something heavy

To throw something heavy

Hew

Hewed

Hewn

To cut things into pieces

Hide

Hid

Hidden

To conceal or put something where it cannot be seen

Hight

Hote/Hight

Hoten

To name To promise

To command

Hit

Hit

Hit

To touch somebody or something with force

Hoise

Hoised/Hoist

Hoised/Hoist

To hoist or lift

Hoist

Hoist/Hoisted

Hoist/Hoisted

To raise or lift using ropes, etc

Hold

Held

Held

To secure something in your hand To contain

House-sit

House-sat

House-sat

To stay in someone's house to look after it while they are away

Housebreak

Housebroke

Housebroken

To train an animal to live in a house

Hurt

Hurt

Hurt

To cause pain, injury or stress

To experience pain, injury or stress

 

I

 

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Inbreed

Inbred

Inbred

To produce babies with health problems by sexual relations between close relatives

Indwell

Indwelt

Indwelt

To inhabit

To exist as a guiding principle

Inhold

Inheld

Inheld

To have as an inherent characteristic

Inlay

Inlaid

Inlaid

To put a different material inside another for decoration, with a flat surface

Input

Input/Inputted

Input/Inputted

To enter data into a computer

Inset

Inset

Inset

To put a picture or graphic inside a lerger one

Interblend

Interblended/Interblen t

Interblended/Interblent

To blend things together

Interbreed

Interbred

Interbred

To mix species or groups sexually

Intercut

Intercut

Intercut

To move between different scenes or stories in a film or narrative

Intergrave

Intergraved

Intergraved/Intergraven

To carve or engrave in alternate sections

Interlay

Interlaid

Interlaid

To place among or between things

Interset

Interset

Interset

To set among or between things

Interweave

Interwove

Interwoven

To join or mix together

Interwind

Interwound

Interwound

To wind together or intertwine

Inweave

Inwove/Inweaved

Inwoven/Inweaved

To weave things together

Inwind

Inwound

Inwound

To wrap or coil around

 

J


Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Jerry-build

Jerry-built

Jerry-built

To build something cheaply and badly

 

K

 

 

 

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Keep

Kept

Kept

To have possession

To make somebody or something stay in a particular place

Ken

Kent/Kenned

Kent/Kenned

To know

Kneel

Knelt/Kneeled

Knelt/Kneeled

To support yourself on your knees

Knit

Knit/Knitted

Knit/Knitted

To make clothes such as pullovers out of wool

Know

Knew

Known

To be acquainted with

To have correctly in your memory

 

L

 

 

 

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Lade

Laded

Laden/Laded

To load (put goods onto) a ship

Landslide

Landslid/Landslided

Landslid/Landslided

To win a convincing and easy victory in an election

Lay

Laid

Laid

To put something in a horizontal position

Lead

Led

Led

To take someone somewhere or guide them To be in command

Lean

Leant/Leaned

Leant/Leaned

To place something at an incline for support against something

Leap

Leapt/Leaped

Leapt/Leaped

To jump

Learn

Learnt/Learned

Learnt/Learned

To acquire knowledge

Leave

Left

Left

To go out of a place

Lend

Lent

Lent

To give somebody money that must be returned

Lep

Lept

Lept

To leap

Let

Let

Let

To allow something to happen

To allow someone to do something

Lie

Lay

Lain

To get into or be in a horizontal position

Light

Lit

Lit

To make something burn

Linebreed

Linebred

Linebred

Breed animals from a particular family

Lip-Read

Lip-Read

Lip-Read

To work out what someone is saying from the movements of their mouth

Lose

Lost

Lost

Not to have something because you do not know where it is

 

M

 

 

 

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Make

Made

Made

To create or construct something

To cause somebody to do something To perform an action

Mean

Meant

Meant

To signify To intend

Meet

Met

Met

To make somebody's acquaintance

 

 

Irregular Verbs

 

 

 

8 of 21

 

 

UsingEnglish.c

 

 

 


 

 

 


To be in the same place as somebody

Melt

Melted

Molten/Melted

To change from solid into a liquid as the temperature goes up

Misbecome

Misbecame

Misbecome

Not to suit

Miscast

Miscast

Miscast

To choose the wrong actor for a role

Mischoose

Mischose

Mischosen

To choose wrongly

Miscut

Miscut

Miscut

To cut something wrongly or badly

Misdeal

Misdealt

Misdealt

To distribute playing cards wrongly in a game

Misdo

Misdid

Misdone

To harm or injure

Misfall

Misfell

Misfallen

To happen unluckily

Misfeed

Misfed

Misfed

To feed incorrectly

To jam printers, photocpiers, etc, by feeding the paper incorrectly

Misgive

Misgave

Misgiven

To become suspicious or worried

Mishear

Misheard

Misheard

To hear something incorrectly

Mishit

Mishit

Mishit

To hit a ball badly or inaccurately

Misknow

Misknew

Misknown

To have the wrong idea about something

Mislay

Mislaid

Mislaid

To lose or put something where you cannot find it

Mislead

Misled

Misled

To make someone behave wrongly To deceive

Mislearn

Mislearnt/Mislearned

Mislearnt/Mislearned

To learn wrongly

Misread

Misread

Misread

To read something incorrectly

Missay

Missaid

Missaid

To say something incorrectly To talk badly about someone

Missend

Missent

Missent

To send to the wrong place or person

Misset

Misset

Misset

To set or place wrongly or incorrectly

 

Misspeak

 

Misspoke

 

Misspoken

To say or pronounce something wrongly

 

To say something that is incorrect or inaccurate

Misspell

Misspelt/Misspelled

Misspelt/Misspelled

To write a word without using the correct letters

Misspend

Misspent

Misspent

To waste time or money

Misswear

Misswore

Missworn

To swear or make an oath falsely

Mistake

Mistook

Mistaken

Not to understand

To confuse somebody with someone else

Misteach

Mistaught

Mistaught

To teach wrongly or incorrectly

Mistell

Mistold

Mistold

To tell something wrongly

Misthink

Misthought

Misthought

To have mistaken thoughts or ideas

Misunderstand

Misunderstood

Misunderstood

Not to understand

Miswear

Misswore

Misworn

To wear badly

Miswed

Miswed/Miswedded

Miswed/Miswedded

To marry wrongly

Miswrite

Miswrote

Miswritten

To write something incorrectly

Mow

Mowed

Mown

To cut grass or cereals

 

 

 

N


Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Naysay

Naysaid

Naysaid

To oppose or criticise

Nose-dive

Nose-dived/Nose-dove

Nose-dived/Nose-dove

To dive or plunge nose first (aircraft)

 

O

 

 

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

Definition

Offset

Offset

Offset

To compenaste or counterbalance

Outbid

Outbid

Outbid

To offer more money than someone in an auction or sale

Outbreed

Outbred

Outbred

To breed faster than others

Outdo

Outdid

Outdone

To do better than someone

Outdraw

Outdrew

Outdrawn

To pull out

To pull a gun faster than an opponent

Outdrink

Outdrank

Outdrunk

To drink more than someone else, usually alcohol

Outdrive

Outdrove

Outdriven

To drive faster or better

Outfight

Outfought

Outfought

To fight better than someone

Outfly

Outflew

Outflown

To fly faster or further

Outgrow

Outgrew

Outgrown

To grow faster than something or someone To become too big or mature for something

Outlay

Outlaid

Outlaid

To spend money for a particular purpose

Outleap

Outleapt/Outleaped

Outleapt/Outleaped

To jump or leap further or higher

Output

Output/Outputted

Output/Outputted

To put out or produce

Outride

Outrode

Outridden

To ride faster than someone

Outrun

Outran

Outrun

To run or go faster than someone

Outsee

Outsaw

Outseen

To see further

To have greater foresight

Outsell

Outsold

Outsold

To sell more than something or someone

Outshine

Outshone

Outshone

To be better than someone

Outshoot

Outshot

Outshot

To shoot faster or better

Outsing

Outsang

Outsung

To sing better or louder than someone

Outsit

Outsat

Outsat

To sit for longer than someone

Outsleep

Outslept

Outslept

To sleep for longer than someone

Outsmell

Outsmelt/Outsmelled

Outsmelt/Outsmelled

To have a better sense of smell

Outspeak

Outspoke

Outspoken

To speak better or more than someone

Outspeed

Outsped

Outsped

To go faster than someone or something

Outspend

Outspent

Outspent

To spend more than someone

Outspin

Outspun

Outspun

To finish or die

Outspring

Outsprang

Outsprung

To spring or jump out

Outstand

Outstood

Outstood

To be clearly different or better

Outswear

Outswore

Outsworn

To exceed someone in swearing- oaths or bad language

Outswim

Outswam

Outswum

To swim faster or further than someone

Outtell

Outtold

Outtold

To be better or exceed in telling or calculating

Outthink

Outthought

Outthought

To think better ideas than someone

Outthrow

Outthrew

Outthrown

To throw further or more accurately


Outwear

Outwore

Outworn

To last longer (of materials, clothes, etc)

Outwind

Outwound

Outwound

To unloose

Outwork

Outworked/Outwrought

Outworked/Outwrough t

To work harder or better

Outwrite

Outwrote

Outwritten

To be better at writing

Overbear

Overbore

Overborne

To use force or authority to control

Overbid

Overbid

Overbid

To bid more something is worth

To bid more than you can win in a card game

Overblow

Overblew

Overblown

To become subdued To blow away

To force too much

Overbreed

Overbred

Overbred

To breed too much so that features become excessive

Overbuild

Overbuilt

Overbuilt

To build too much, overdevelop

Overbuy

Overbought

Overbought

To buy too much

 

To pay too much

Overcast

Overcast

Overcast

To become cloudy

To sew with overcast stitiches (long slanting stitches)

Overcome

Overcame

Overcome

To master a problem or difficult situation To become helpless because of excessive emotions or physical difficulties

Overcut

Overcut

Overcut

To cut down more trees than permitted

Overdo

Overdid

Overdone

To do something to excess To cook something too much

Overdraw

Overdrew

Overdrawn

To take money out of an account so that a negative balance results

Overdrink

Overdrank

Overdrunk

To drink too much

Overdrive

Overdrove

Overdriven

To drive or work something too hard

Overeat

Overate

Overeaten

To eat too much

Overfeed

Overfed

Overfed

To give too much food

Overfly

Overflew

Overflown

To fly over a place

Overgrow

Overgrew

Overgrown

To grow too<