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Paragraph Writing


Enseignant MOHAMMED MSADDEK

Examen – rattrapage :PARAGRAPH WRITING


  Filière :         English Studies Module :      Paragraph Writing Semestre : 1 Parcours : Professeur : Kesbi Etudiant (e) ……………………………………………………………….. N° APOGEE :……………………………………………………………………………………. Groupes :             3 C.N.E : ………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………… C.N.I : …………………………………………………………………………………………………… examen : …………………………. ……………………………………………………………    

Contrôle final session d’automne rattrapage 2020-2021

Write a well-structured paragraph on ONE of the following topics:

  1. Tell us about an experience that helped you understand that parents or other people were right.
  2. Describe a peaceful place that you have visited.

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Chapter 1: The sentence

                                     University Hassan II Mohammedia Faculty of letters Department of English   English studies Writing Paragraphs   Kesbi  

I)                  Sentences

You use groups of words to tell your thoughts or ideas many times every day.  Some groups of words state a complete idea.  Other groups of words may state part of an idea.  But they do not give you a complete idea.

  • Read these groups of words.
The scientists.The scientists watch the screen.
A rocketA rocket leaves earth.
A sentence is a group of words that states a complete idea
  • Read each group of words.  Write sentence if the group of words is a sentence.  Write not a sentence if the group of words is not a sentence.
  • The space station spins towards Mars.
  • Some space engineers.
  • The Chinese invented the first rockets.
  • A tower near the rocket.
  • Astronauts went to the spaceship in an elevator.

II)              Types of sentences

A declarative sentence is a sentence that makes a statement or tells something. We travelled to California for our vacation.
An interrogative sentence is a sentence that asks something. Have you ever been there?
An exclamatory sentence is a sentence that shows strong feeling. What a wonderful time we had!
An imperative sentence is a sentence that tells someone to do something. Describe your vacation to me.

Write D for a declarative sentence, Int for an interrogative sentence, Imp for an imperative sentence and E for an exclamatory sentence.

1) What did you see in California?

2) I saw three movie stars.

3) How excited I was!

4) Tell me their names.

5) How beautiful it looked!

6) Did you talk to them?

III)          Capitalising and punctuating sentences

Use a capital letter to begin the first word of every sentence.Use a period (.) at the end of a declarative or an imperative sentence.Use a question mark (?) at the end of an interrogative sentence.Use an exclamation mark (!) at the end of an exclamatory sentence.  

Write each sentence on the line following it.  Use a capital letter at the beginning of each sentence.  Put the correct punctuation mark at the end.

why are you standing therehow impatient you areclose the doorwhy is it openthe mail will be here soon1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Imagine you are watching a boat race.  On the blank lines write about it.

  1. (Declarative) ………………………………………..
  2. (Imperative) …………………………………………
  3. (Interrogative) ……………………………………..
  4.  (Exclamatory) ………………………………….

IV)           Subject and predicate parts

The subject part of a sentence names whom or what the sentence is about. My friends swam at the beach.
The predicate part of a sentence tells what action the subject part does. My friends swam at the beach.

Show the subject part and the predicate part of the following sentences.

SentenceSubject partPredicate part
1. Children played in the sand.  
2. Many people swam.  
3. A woman gathered seashells.  
4. Explorers landed on the moon.  

Imagine you are at the beach.  Complete each sentence below with a subject part or a predicate part.

  1. ……………………………………………… shines in the sky.
  2. A gentle wind …………………………………………………..
  3. Several birds ……………………………………………………
  4. ……………………………………………… build a sandcastle.

………………………………………buries his feet in the sand

Chapter 2: Expanding the sentence

University Hassan II Mohammedia Faculty of letters Department of English English studies Writing Paragraphs   Kesbi  

I.                   Expanding sentences

A complete sentence must have a subject part and a predicate part.   However, some complete sentences give only a little information.

Read these sentences.

The planet appeared.   Scientists observed.
A new planet appeared.Scientist observed the planet.

.  Adjective, adverbs and prepositional phrases can make sentences more descriptive and specific.

1.  Exercise A

Write each sentence.  Add an adjective, adverb or a prepositional phrase in the places shown in the parentheses.

  1. Charley told me about his (adjective) dog, Max.
  2. Max is a (adverb) smart dog.
  3. It’ll carry things (phrase).

2.      Exercise B

Add adjectives, adverbs and prepositional phrases to the sentences below.

1)     The girls stood.

  • The woman waved.
  • The crowd cheered.

3.  Exercise C                                                     

Write three descriptive sentences about three animals.  Use adjective, adverbs and prepositional phrases.

II Combining sentences

II a Combining subjects and predicates

Sentences with the same predicate or with the same subject can often be combined into one sentence.

1)      Exercise A

Use the common predicate or subject to combine the sets of sentences.

  1. José likes to fish.  His sister likes to fish.
  2. Flora caught two fish.  Flora cleaned two fish.
  3. Their mother enjoys fishing.  Their father enjoys fishing.

4.  Flora squeezed lemons.  Flora made lemonade. 

II b  Combining with adjectives, adverbs and phrases

Exercise  Combine each group of sentences into one sentence.

  1. It was a cool day.  It was a windy day.  It was a cloudy day.
  2. The beach was deserted.  The beach was sandy.  The beach was large.
  3. The man jogged.  The man jogged slowly.  The man jogged near the shore.
  4. The runner threw a stick.  The stick was wooden.  The stick was for the dog.

II.c  Combining sentences

Sometimes two sentences with related ideas can be combined into a compound sentence.

Exercise   Use the conjunction in parentheses and a comma to combine each pair of related sentences.

  1. Was there one writer named Mark Twain?  Did two writers share that name? (or)
  2. The author of Huckleberry Finn called himself Mark Twain.  There was apparently another writer of the same name.  (but)
  3. Mark Twain was the “pen name” of Samuel Clemens.  It was also the name used by another writer.  (but)

II.d Combining sentences in other ways

You can sometimes combine two sentences by changing one of the sentences into an appositive or into a prepositional phrase.

Exercise A  Combine each set of sentences by making one of the sentences into an appositive.  Be sure to use commas to set off the appositive.

Example:  Jacqueline flew many types of planes.  She was a famous pilot.

   Jacqueline, a famous pilot, flew many types of planes.

  1. Jacqueline set many records.  She was an expert pilot.
  2. Jacqueline grew up in a foster home.  She was an orphan.
  3. She flew a fighter plane in 1936.  It was the Starfighter.

Exercise B  Use a prepositional phrase to combine the sentences.

Example:  Amelia was born in Kansas.  She was born in 1898.

Amelia was born in Kansas in 1898.

  1. Amelia flew aeroplanes.  She flew with great skill.
  2. She flew by herself.  She flew across the Atlantic Ocean.
  3. Amelia wrote a book.  It was about her flights. 

Chapter 3: The idea of the paragraph

University Hassan II Mohammedia Faculty of letters Department of English English studies Writing Paragraphs Kesbi  

I.  The idea of a paragraph

A paragraph is a group of sentences about one idea.  Sentences in the paragraph develop or contribute to that idea.

Exercise A.  Read the paragraph below.  Then write the idea of the paragraph and three supporting details.

            Though he had only three months of formal education, Thomas Alva Edison affected the lives of millions of people.  Edison is best known for the electric light, but he invented other well-known devices such as the phonograph and the stock ticker.  Most people are not aware that Edison also developed a cement mixer and a storage battery.  The next time you use a typewriter, thank Thomas Edison for improving that useful machine.

Paragraph idea: ………(1)………………

Supporting Details: …(3)……………

Exercise B  Write three supporting details for each paragraph idea below.

  1. Sports that interest me and the reasons why
  2. Life with a single parent
  3. Summer vacation plans
  1. Topic sentences

A topic sentence is a statement of the controlling idea of a paragraph.

Exercise A  In each pair of sentences, there is a topic sentence and a supporting detail.  Find and underline the topic sentence.

  1. I pull on my boots and throw my raincoat.  I have a job to do every time it rains.
  2. There are over thirty-five breeds of horses.  The Morgan horse is a unique American breed.
  3. Women have swum in races for many years.  Helen held a dozen swimming records.
  4. Brazil’s official language is Portuguese.  Brazil has an interesting culture and history.
  5. I do not understand many weather terms.  What is a windchill factor?
  6. My brother Bill is active in winter sports.  His favourite sport is ice fishing.
  7. Many cities in this country have nicknames.  San Francisco is “The City by the Golden Gate.”
  8. Wisconsin produces much of the area’s corn.  Parts of the Midwest are called the “Corn Belt.”
  9. Joggers must wear well-made shoes.  The shoes should give you firm support.

Exercise B  Write four details for each of the topic sentences below.  Write the supporting details in sentence form.

  1. Newspaper stories are often inaccurate.
  2. Every university should have a cafeteria.
  3. Small economy cars are better than large cars.

Chapter 4: The structure of the paragraph

University Hassan II Mohammedia Faculty of letters Department of English English studies Writing Paragraphs   Kesbi  

A paragraph must have specific details to support its controlling idea.  Unnecessary details should not be included.

  1. Read the paragraph and underline the sentence with supporting detail that does not contribute to the controlling idea.

Chicago is called “the Windy city”, but its weather is not especially windy.  “Windy” was an old term for people who talked too much.  Early Chicagoans talked about the city’s future and predicted it would be one of the nation’s largest cities.  A reporter from New York thought Chicagoans were just bragging[1].  He wrote a story calling Chicago “The Windy City.”  Many cities have tall buildings.

  • Read the controlling ideas and lists of details below.  Circle the letter of the detail that does not contribute to the controlling idea.
1.   I like to live in the city for many reasons. variety of good restaurantsmovies, museums, special eventsinexpensive public transportationabundant land for farmingThe country has advantages over city life.slower life styleinteresting poems about country lifefresh air and open fieldsless crowded living conditions
Breakfast is my favourite daily event.a time for family to get togethervariety of breakfast foodsenergy provider for the daybreakfast not eaten by most EuropeansJogging is one of the best types of exercise.warm or cold weather sportlittle equipmentexciting races for 26 milesno time or place difficulties

Qualities and structure of the standard Paragraph

TO. S. U. D. I. C. : ……………………………………………………………

                                 ……………..

Exercise 1. Identify the structure of the following paragraphs.  State the ideas in your own words rather than simply copying the sentences word for word.

            Successful students have learned three important techniques: organising, planning and preparing.  Organised students have the necessary tools for their classes.  They usually carry an assignment notebook and calendar, a highlighting marker, folders to keep papers in order and a pocket dictionary.  In addition, successful students plan their time well.  They keep lists of assignments and due dates, and allow enough time to do the work.  Finally, successful students prepare well for tests.  They take good class notes and anticipate test questions.  Students with these techniques are the most likely to succeed in the classroom.

Topic idea: ……………………………………………………………………………………..

Supporting idea 1: ………………………………………………………………………………

Details: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Supporting idea 2: ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Details:  …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Supporting idea 3: ……………………………………………………………………………..

Details: ………………………………………………………………………………………..

Concluding idea: ………………………………………………………………………………

            Travelling to university classes is much easier for some students than for others.  My cousin Samira has a very difficult trip.  She lives on the outskirts of Mohammedia and has to take two buses in order to reach the university.  Waiting for the buses can be unpleasant, especially when it is raining and the ride takes almost an hour.  My trip is much easier than Samira’s because I live in the Wafa area, just a half-hour’s walk from the university.  My classmate Jamal has the least difficulty getting to classes.  Since he is a soldier as well as a student, he only has to walk across the road to reach the university.  Despite these differences, all of us usually arrive at the university at the same time each day.

Topic idea: ……………………………………………………………………………………..

Supporting idea 1: ………………………………………………………………………………

Details: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Supporting idea 2: ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Details:  …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Supporting idea 3: ……………………………………………………………………………..

Details: ………………………………………………………………………………………..

Concluding idea: ………………………………………………………………………………


[1] Brag: boast

Chapter 5:Narrative paragraph

University Hassan II Mohammedia Faculty of letters Department of English English studies Writing Paragraphs        Kesbi  

How to Write a Narrative Paragraph[1]                                  

People like to tell tales, listen to anecdotes and read interesting stories. A narrative paragraph represents your chance to tell a brief story to your reader. Planning, developing and polishing your narrative leads to a clear, intriguing story — a process teachers can help their students work through when writing narrative paragraphs.

  1. Topics and Topic Sentences
    1. Prewriting helps you discover a topic to write about. Brainstorm by listing some events you might write about, such as the first day of a class, the scariest experience in your life or the happiest moment. Write some notes about why the event was significant. Then create a topic sentence to concisely explain what you will recount in your paragraph and why it matters. A good narrative topic sentence could be « Terri’s only day working as a dishwasher was one of the worst days of her life. » The reader quickly knows the point of the paragraph and why the narrative matters.

Developing Detail

  • Develop the paragraph with details that tell the story, focusing on the purpose in your topic sentence. All the details in the dishwasher paper should illustrate how awful the day was. Examples and specific, sensory details make the event vivid. Instead of simply saying Terri broke dishes, the paper might explain, « As she turned away, Terri’s sleeve caught the corner of the full tray of dishes, sending them cascading to the floor with a huge crash. Broken glass and fragments of china flew everywhere. » Typically, you should tell the story in chronological order.

Concluding Sentences and Finishing Touches

  • After finishing the narrative paragraph, create a concluding sentence to tie the elements of the story together and remind your reader of your purpose, such as, « Those eight nightmarish hours combined to create a horrific day Terri will never forget. » Once you have completed your draft, add transitions where needed to make the connections among ideas clear. Words like « next, » « after » and « then » tell the reader how events correlate: « After the tray fell, Terri stood rooted in horrified silence. » Check your assignment instructions to see if first-person language like « I » is appropriate, which is often the case in narrative writing.

[1] http://www.ehow.com/how_2046960_write-narrative-paragraph.html

Chapter 6: Descriptive paragraph

University Hassan II Mohammedia Faculty of letters Department of English English studies Writing Paragraphs        Kesbi  

How to Write a Descriptive Paragraph[1] 

Descriptive paragraphs let the reader touch, taste, see, hear and smell what you are describing. The reader should feel as if they can see what you are describing clearly. You want to paint a picture as you write the descriptive paragraph. Here are a few guidelines to help you write a great descriptive paragraph.

Instructions

  1.  Describe particular smells and tastes in the paragraph. Use the most descriptive words possible to allow the reader to smell or taste what you are describing. For example: « The homemade cookies filled the air with the scent of warm chocolate, and the chocolate morsels filled your mouth with the taste of cocoa. »
  2. Add the senses of touch and hearing to your paragraph wherever possible. Describe certain textures and sounds. For example: « The silk garment felt smooth and fluid over my skin, and it had the sound of a gentle breeze. »
  3. Use similes and metaphors when you write your descriptive paragraph. These literary devices strengthen your paragraph if used properly.
  4. Insert descriptive adjectives to modify your nouns. Don’t just say « blue ocean. » Describe the actual colors you see in the ocean. Use more descriptive words such as aquamarine or indigo to describe the shade.
  5. Try personification to give human characteristics to inanimate objects. For example: « The tree stood proudly with her arms stretching toward the sky. »
  6. Be sure to make your paragraph long enough to give an adequate description. Describe the scene or object in as many ways as you can, but check that your paragraph is coherent.

[1] http://www.ehow.com/how_2065748_write-descriptive-paragraph.html

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