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Grammar 1 (Course Content)

Grammar 1Course Content


HASSAN II UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF LETTERS

AND HUMAN SCIENCES

CASABLANCA

MOHAMEDIA

Modular Program: English Studies

Semester 1

Grammar 1

Pr. S. FATHI

Grammar 1Course Content

1. Present Simple & Continuous

2. Past Simple & Continuous

3. Present Perfect Simple & Continuous

4. Past Perfect Simple & Continuous

5. Future (Perfect) Simple & Continuous

6. (Mixed) Conditionals

Chapter 1: THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

  • This Chapter is about the different uses of Present S & C.

Form: present tense of BE + present participle (infinitive + ing)

Spelling: verbs ending in single e, this e is dropped. take à taking; argue à arguing

bite à biting; fire à firing

see à seeing; agree à agreeing; dye à dyeing Verbs ending in a final consonant, this consonant is doubled.

stop à stopping; can à canning; begin à beginning prefer à preferring; admit à admitting

enter à entering: here the final consonant is not doubled because the final syllable is not strongly stressed.

carry à carrying; enjoy -à enjoying

Function:

1-  Action happening at the moment of speaking

  • Look, it is raining.
  • I am wearing a sweater because it is cold.
  • Why are you looking at him?
  • She is not writing as she doesn’t have a pen.

2-  Temporary action in progress these days

  • I am reading a story by Hemingway.
  • They are painting all the walls.
  • I am living with my uncle because i am painting my room.
  • I am taking a medicine.
  • We are looking for a new flat.
  • She is taking driving courses.

3-  Pre-arranged future action

  • I am meeting a friend tonight; we are going to the movies.
  • Are you doing anything this weekend?
  • Yes, we are going camping.
  • I am seeing my dentist next Wednesday.

4-  Used with “always” to express irritation at a repeated action

  • The boys are always playing football in the street.
  • They are always sitting in the café.
  • She is always talking on the phone.
  • He is always playing the guitar at nights.

Exceptions: since the present continuous is used normally only for, intentional actions, the following verbs are not used in continuous tenses. Stative verbs are verbs that talk about the state of the subject, unlike dynamic verbs that talk about deliberate actions.

  1. Verbs of the senses: feel, hear, see, smell, notice, observe

but: listen, look, smell, see, and feel

  • Verbs of feeling and emotions: adore, appreciate, care, desire, detest, fear, hate, like, love, mind, value, want, and wish
  • Verbs of mental activity: agree, appreciate, believe, expect, forget, know, mean, perceive, realize, recall, recognize, remember, think, trust, and understand
  • Verbs of possession: belong, owe, possess, own, and have but: have (eat, take) 5- Miscellaneous: appear concern, consist, hold, keep, matter, seem, and signify

THE PRESENT SIMPLE

Form: infinitive without “to”; bare infinitive

ànegative form: contraction of “DO”

Function:

1-  To express facts, general truths

  • Water boils at 100 °C.
  • The River Danube flows through Vienna.
  • Dogs bark and cats mew.
  • The sun rises in the East.

2-  To express habitual actions

  • I usually get up at 7 a.m.
  • She studies music every Saturday.
  • He often goes jogging on the weekend.
  • We sometimes play soccer on Sunday mornings.

3-  Future actions according to a schedule, program, timetable

  • Next Wednesday is a national holiday.
  • The football season starts in September.
  • Classes end by late June.
  • The show starts at 9 p.m.

4. We sometimes use the present simple to talk about the past when we are:

  • telling a story:

I was walking down the street the other day when suddenly this man comes up to me and tells me he has lost his wallet and asks me to lend him some money. Well, he looks a bit dangerous so I‘m not sure what to do and while we are standing there

  • summarising a book, film or play:

Harry Potter goes to Hogwarts School. He has two close friends, Hermione and …Shakespeare’s Hamlet is the Prince of Denmark. One night he sees his father’s ghost. The ghost tells him he has been murdered

Practice Exercises

  • This Practice trains students on how to use Present S & C.

Chapter 1: PRACTICE ON THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

EXERCISES: Put the following verbs between brackets into either the present simple or continuous, specifying the particular function in question.

1- Listen, the teacher (explain) the lesson.

2- My train (leave) at 6 p.m.

3- You (hear) it? The telephone (ring).

4- I often (sleep) after 11 p.m

5- Salt (melt) in most liquids.

6-Quiet please, I (watch) the news.

7- She (feel) terribly sick now.

8- Excuse me, you (wait) for the bus?

9- Most rivers (flow) into the sea.

10- The Spring holiday (start) in late March.

11- They (play) football right now.

12- She (feel) dizzy when she (use) the lift.

13- I (be) terribly hungry now.

13- We (move) to a new flat next month.

14- The Academic Year (begin) in September.

16- He (be) here now; he (have) a bath.

17- What she (do) in the evenings?

18- She usually (knit) or (watch) TV.

  • He always (buy) lottery tickets, but he never (win) anything.

19- She (make) a dress for herself at the moment.

  • She (make) all her own clothes.

20- Who (whistle)? It (be) Mr Baker. He (feel) happy.

21- They (build) a new bridge over the motorway.

22- She (look) for a new job as her company (close) this December

23- She (run) because she’s late for her lesson.

24- Our teacher always (give) us lots of homework.

25- We (not want) to go to the concert.

26- What time (you / meet) Pete tomorrow?

27- I (not work) today. I’m on holiday.

28- People (speak) English in Jamaica.

29- Archie (not use) his computer at the moment.

30- (Tony / live) near the park?

31- Every Monday, Sally (drive) her kids to football practice.

32- Usually, I (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris.

33- Shhhhh! Be quiet! Your father (sleep).

34- Don’t forget to take your umbrella. It (rain).

35- I hate living in Seattle because it (always, rain).

36- I’m sorry I can’t hear what you (say) because everybody (talk) so loudly.

37- Justin (currently, write) a book about his adventures in Tibet.

38- This delicious chocolate (be) made by a small chocolatier in Zurich.

39- Look! He (leave) the house.

40- Quiet please! I (write) a test.

41- She usually (walk) to school.

42- But look! Today she (go) by bike.

43- Every Sunday we (go) to see my grandparents.

44- He often (go) to the cinema.

45- We (play) monopoly at the moment. 46- The child seldom (cry).

47- I (not, do) anything at the moment. 48- (watch, he) the news regularly?

48- It (be) early in the morning.

49- Sally (get) out of bed, (open) the window and (go) into the bathroom.

51- Then she (have) breakfast.

  • After breakfast, Sally usually (cycle) to school.
  • After school, she (go) back home. Sally usually (eat) her lunch at home.
  • In the afternoons, she first (do) her homework and then she (meet) her friends in the park.
  • What (do/she) now? 56- She (play) the guitar.
  • Her friends (listen) and some of them (sing) along.
  • When Sally (come) home in the evening, she (have) dinner and then she (watch) TV.
  • She (go) to bed at about 9.30 p.m. every day.

Chapter 1: ANSWER KEY TO PRACTICE ON THE PRESENT SIMPLE & CONTINUOUS

EXERCISES: Put the following verbs between brackets into either the present simple or continuous, specifying the particular function in question.

1- Listen, the teacher is explaining the lesson.

2- My train leaves at 6 p.m.

3- Do you hear it? The telephone is ringing.

4- I often sleep after 11 p.m

5- Salt melts in- most liquids.

6- Quiet please, I am watching the news.

7- She feels terribly sick now.

8- Excuse me, are you waiting for the bus?

9- Most rivers flow into the sea.

10- The Spring holiday starts in late March.

11- They are playing football right now.

12- She feels dizzy when she uses the lift.

13- I am terribly hungry now.

14- We are moving to a new flat next month. 15- The Academic Year begins in September. 16- He is here now; he is having a bath.

  1. What she does she do in the evenings?

– She usually knits or watches TV.

  1. He always buys/is always buying lottery tickets, but he never wins

anything.

  1. She making a dress for herself at the moment.

– She makes all her own clothes.

  • Who is whistling? It is Mr Baker. He feels happy.

21- They are building a new bridge over the motorway.

22- She is looking for a new job as her company closes this December

23- She is running because she’s late for her lesson.

24- Our teacher always gives/is always giving us lots of homework.

25- We do not want to go to the concert.

26- What time are you meeting Pete tomorrow?

27- I am not working today. I’m on holiday.

28- People speak English in Jamaica.

29- Archie is not using his computer at the moment.

30- Does Tony live near the park?

31- Every Monday, Sally drives her kids to football practice.

32- Usually, I work as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I am studying French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris.

33- Shhhhh! Be quiet! Your father is sleeping.

34- Don’t forget to take your umbrella. It is raining. 35- I hate living in Seattle because it always rains.

35- I’m sorry I can’t hear what you are saying because everybody is talking so loudly.

36- Justin is currently writing a book about his adventures in Tibet.

38- This delicious chocolate is made by a small chocolatier in Zurich.

39- Look! He is leaving the house.

40- Quiet please! I am writing a test.

41- She usually walks to school.

42- But look! Today she is going by bike.

Every Sunday we go to see my grandparents.

44- He often goes to the cinema.

45- We are playing monopoly at the moment.

46- The child seldom cries.

47- I am not doing anything at the moment.

48- Does he watch the news regularly?

49- It is early in the morning.

50- Sally gets out of bed, opens the window and goes into the bathroom.

51- Then she has breakfast.

52- After breakfast, Sally usually cycles to school.

53- After school, she goes back home. Sally usually eats her lunch at home.

54- In the afternoons, she first does her homework and then she meets her friends in the park.

55- What is she doing now?

56- She playing the guitar.

57- Her friends are listening and some of them are singing along.

58- When Sally comes home in the evening, she has dinner and then she

watches TV.

59- She goes to bed at about 9.30 p.m. every day.

Section 2: Chapter 2: Past S & C

  • This Chapter is about the different uses of Past S & C.

Chapter 1: ANSWER KEY TO PRACTICE ON THE PRESENT SIMPLE & CONTINUOUS

EXERCISES: Put the following verbs between brackets into either the present simple or continuous, specifying the particular function in question.

1- Listen, the teacher is explaining the lesson.

2- My train leaves at 6 p.m.

3- Do you hear it? The telephone is ringing.

4- I often sleep after 11 p.m.

  • Salt melts in most liquids.
  • Quiet please, I am watching the news.
  • 7- She feels terribly sick now.

8- Excuse me, are you waiting for the bus?

9- Most rivers flow into the sea.

10- The Spring holiday starts in late March.

11- They are playing football right now.

12- She feels dizzy when she uses the lift.

13- I am terribly hungry now.

14- We are moving to a new flat next month.

15- The Academic Year begins in September.

16- He is here now; he is having a bath.

  1. What she does she do in the evenings?

– She usually knits or watches TV.

  1. He always buys/is always buying lottery tickets, but he never wins

anything.

  1. She making a dress for herself at the moment.

– She makes all her own clothes.

  • Who is whistling? It is Mr Baker. He feels happy. 21- They are building a new bridge over the motorway.
  • Who is whistling? It is Mr Baker. He feels happy. 21- They are building a new bridge over the motorway.
  • Who is whistling? It is Mr Baker. He feels happy. 21- They are building a new bridge over the motorway.
  • Who is whistling? It is Mr Baker. He feels happy. 21- They are building a new bridge over the motorway.

22- She is looking for a new job as her company closes this December 23- She is running because she’s late for her lesson.

24- Our teacher always gives/is always giving us lots of homework. 25- We do not want to go to the concert.

26- What time are you meeting Pete tomorrow? 27- I am not working today. I’m on holiday.

  • People speak English in Jamaica.
  • Archie is not using his computer at the moment. 30- Does Tony live near the park?
  • Every Monday, Sally drives her kids to football practice.
  • Usually, I work as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I am studying
  • People speak English in Jamaica.
  • Archie is not using his computer at the moment. 30- Does Tony live near the park?
  • Every Monday, Sally drives her kids to football practice.
  • Usually, I work as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I am studying
  • People speak English in Jamaica.
  • Archie is not using his computer at the moment. 30- Does Tony live near the park?
  • Every Monday, Sally drives her kids to football practice.
  • Usually, I work as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I am studying
  • People speak English in Jamaica.
  • Archie is not using his computer at the moment. 30- Does Tony live near the park?
  • Every Monday, Sally drives her kids to football practice.
  • Usually, I work as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I am studying

French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris. 33- Shhhhh! Be quiet! Your father is sleeping.

34- Don’t forget to take your umbrella. It is raining. 35- I hate living in Seattle because it always rains.

  • I’m sorry I can’t hear what you are saying because everybody is talking so loudly.
  • Justin is currently writing a book about his adventures in Tibet. 38- This delicious chocolate is made by a small chocolatier in Zurich. 39- Look! He is leaving the house.

40- Quiet please! I am writing a test. 41- She usually walks to school.

  • But look! Today she is going by bike.
  • Every Sunday we go to see my grandparents. 44- He often goes to the cinema.

45- We are playing monopoly at the moment. 46- The child seldom cries.

47- I am not doing anything at the moment. 48- Does he watch the news regularly?

  • It is early in the morning.
  • Sally gets out of bed, opens the window and goes into the bathroom. 51- Then she has breakfast.
  • After breakfast, Sally usually cycles to school.
  • After school, she goes back home. Sally usually eats her lunch at home.
  • In the afternoons, she first does her homework and then she meets her friends in the park.
  • What is she doing now? 56- She playing the guitar.
  • Her friends are listening and some of them are singing along.
  • When Sally comes home in the evening, she has dinner and then she

watches TV.

  • She goes to bed at about 9.30 p.m. every day.

Practice Exercises

This Practice trains students on how to use Past S & C.

PRACTICE ON THE PAST SIMPLE & CONTINUOUS

A- Put the following verbs between brackets into either the past simple or the past continuous.

1- A few days ago, she (hide) the letter inside her book. 2- He (go) to the stadium when he (meet) them.

3- I (find) this old scarf while I (look) for some socks. 4- While they (eat) some relatives (come) in.

5- They (dance) when they (hear) a scream outside. 6- There (be) a bank robbery yesterday.

7- While she (wash) the dishes, he (read) the newspaper. 8- Last year, they (make) a trip to Switzerland.

  • We (sleep) soundly when the telephone (ring).
  • She (teach) Spanish for three years in Marrakesh.
  • She (make) a cake when the light (go) out. She (have) to finish in the dark.
  • The admiral (play) golf when he (receive) news of the invasion. He (insist) on finishing the game.
  • He (clean) his rifle when it accidentally (go) off and (shoot) him.
  • He (play) the guitar outside her house when someone (open) the window and (throw) out a bucket of water.
  1. While I (look) for my passport, I (find) this old photograph of mine.
  2. The prisoner (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he (work). He (wear) blue overalls and black shoes.
  3. She (say) that the car (travel) at 80km/h when it (begin) to skid.
  4. While he (water) the flowers, it (begin) to rain. He (put) up his umbrella and (go) on watering.
  5. I (find) this ring as I (dig) in the garden. It (look) very old. I (wonder) who it (belong) to.
  6. While I (swim) someone (steal) my clothes. I (have) to drive home in my swimsuit.

B- Choose the correct tense.

  1. As the stranger came | was coming to the station, a car stopped | was stopping behind him.
  2. My grandma never watched | was never watching TV. But she read | was reading books.
  3. I started | was starting work at 6 o’clock.
  4. He got up | was getting up and switched off | was switching off the light.
  5. When I finished | was finishing my homework, I cooked | was cooking dinner.
  6. While we listened | were listening to the news, the telephone rang | was ringing.
  7. Kate stood up | was standing up and answered | was answering it.
  8. As I drove | was driving to work last Friday, a car crashed | was crashing in front of me. I stepped | was stepping on the brakes.
  9. Yesterday Carol wrote | was writing emails from 10 to 11 and then from 5 to 7 again.
  1. We arrived in Cannes at 2.30. The sun shone | was shining, people sunbathed | were sunbathing on the beach and big yachts sailed | were sailing near the harbor. We parked our car and went | were going to the beach.

C- Complete the story.

Every day James Lullaby travels to London. Yesterday he ………………………..

(drive) his car, when he ……………….. (see) a dog in the middle of the road. The dog ……………………….. (watch) the car. James …………………………….. (stop) and

……………………………. (get) out of his car. As he ………………….. (get) out, the dog

………………….. (run) away. James ……………………. (go) back to his car. While he

…………………………. (get) in it, the dog ………………………….. (appear) again and

…………………………. (sit) down in the middle of the road. James …………………

(start)   the   engine,    but   the   dog   …………………….   (not   move).   James

…………………………….. (jump) out of the car and …………………………. (shout) at

the dog. The dog ………………………. (bark) at him and ……………… (start) to run.

James ……………………….. (follow) the dog. Suddenly, he……………………. (see)

two girls lying on the grass. They……………………… (bleed).

D- Make these sentences negative.

  1. James heard a dog on the road.

………………………………………………………………….

  • James was riding a motorbike.

………………………………………………………………….

  • James ran over the dog.

………………………………………………………………….

  • James threw a stone at the dog.

………………………………………………………………….

  • The dog was barking at James all the time.

………………………………………………………………….

  • The dog bit James.

………………………………………………………………….

  • The girls were sitting on the grass.

………………………………………………………………….

E- Find mistakes and correct them.

  1. I was doing my homework first and then I had a rest.

……………………………………………………………………….

  • My mum was often driving when she was younger.

……………………………………………………………………….

  • While daddy didn’t look, Susan put his key in her pocket.

……………………………………………………………………….

  • I needed to talk to her and at 10 I was calling her.

……………………………………………………………………….

  • I saw you with Jill at the cafe. You talked.

……………………………………………………………………….

  • Your English is very good. Where were you studying?

……………………………………………………………………….

  • As they walked along the river, they saw something in the water.

……………………………………………………………………….

  • I was taking her to Dover. We had a great time.

……………………………………………………………………….

  • The weather was perfect when the sun was shining. But it was changing soon.

……………………………………………………………………….

  1. When he met her, she wore a hat.

……………………………………………………………………….

Answer Key

This Section offers students the key to check their answers.

ANSWER KEY TO PRACTICE ON THE PAST SIMPLE & CONTINUOUS

A- Put the following verbs between brackets into either the past simple or the past continuous.

1- A few days ago, she hid the letter inside her book. 2- He was going to the stadium when he met them.

3- I found this old scarf while I looking for some socks. 4- While they eating some relatives came in.

5- They dancing when they heard a scream outside. 6- There was a bank robbery yesterday.

7- While she was washing the dishes, he was reading the newspaper. 8- Last year, they made a trip to Switzerland.

9- We were sleeping soundly when the telephone rang. 10- She taught Spanish for three years in Marrakesh.

  1. She making a cake when the light went out. She had to finish in the dark.
  2. The admiral playing golf when he received  news of the  invasion. He

insisted on finishing the game.

  1. He was cleaning his rifle when it accidentally went off and shot him.
  2. He was playing the guitar outside her house when someone opened the window and threw out a bucket of water.
  1. While I looking for my passport, I found this old photograph of mine.
  2. The prisoner escaped by climbing the wall of the garden where he was working. He was wearing blue overalls and black shoes.
  3. She said that the car was travelling at 80km/h when it began to skid.
  4. While he was watering the flowers, it began to rain. He put up his umbrella and went on watering.
  5. I found this ring as I was digging in the garden. It looked very old. I

wondered who it belonged to.

  • While I was swimming someone stole my clothes. I had to drive home in my swimsuit.

B- Choose the correct tense.

1- As the stranger was coming to the station, a car stopped behind him. 2- My grandma never watched TV. But she read reading books.

  • I started work at 6 o’clock.
  • He got up and switched off the light.
  • When I finished my homework, I cooked dinner.
  • While we were listening to the news, the telephone rang. 7- Kate stood up and answered the telephone.
  • As I was driving to work last Friday, a car crashed in front of me. I stepped

on the brakes.

  • Yesterday Carol wrote emails from 10 to 11 and then from 5 to 7 again.
  • We arrived in Cannes at 2.30. The sun was shining, people were sunbathing on the beach and big yachts were sailing near the harbor. We parked our car and went to the beach.

C- Complete the story.

Every day James Lullaby travels to London. Yesterday he was driving his car, when he saw a dog in the middle of the road. The dog was watching the car. James stopped and got out of his car. As he was getting out, the dog ran away. James went back to his car. While he was getting in it, the dog appeared again and sat down in the middle of the road. James started the engine, but the dog did not move. James jumped out of the car and shouted at the dog. The dog barked at him and started to run. James followed the dog. Suddenly, he saw two girls lying on the grass. They were bleeding.

D- Make these sentences negative.

1- James heard a dog on the road. No, he didn’t hear a dog on the road. 2- James was riding a motorbike.

No, he wasn’t riding a motorbike. 3- James ran over the dog.

No, he didn’t run over the dog.

  • James threw a stone at the dog. No, he didn’t throw a stone at the dog.
  • The dog was barking at James all the time. No, it wasn’t barking at James all the time.
  • The dog bit James. No, it didn’t bite James.
  • The girls were sitting on the grass. No, they weren’t sitting on the grass.

E- Find mistakes and correct them.

  1. I was doing my homework first and then I had a rest.

à I did my homework first and then I had a rest.

  • My mum was often driving when she was younger.

àMy mum often drove when she was younger.

  • While daddy didn’t look, Susan put his key in her pocket.

àWhile daddy wasn’t looking, Susan put his key in her pocket. 4- I needed to talk to her and at 10 I was calling her.

àI needed to talk to her and at 10 I called her. 5- I saw you with Jill at the cafe. You talked.

àI saw you with Jill at the cafe. You were talking.

  • Your English is very good. Where were you studying?

àYour English is very good. Where did you study?

  • As they walked along the river, they saw something in the water.

àAs they were walking along the river, they saw something in the water. 8- I was taking her to Dover. We had a great time.

àI took her to Dover. We had a great time.

9- The weather was perfect when the sun was shining. But it was changing soon.

àThe weather was perfect when the sun was shining. But it changed soon. 10- When he met her, she wore a hat.

àWhen he met her, she was wearing a hat.

Chapter 3: Present Perfect S & C

This Chapter is about the different uses of Present Perfect S & C.

Chapter 3: THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE & CONTINUOUS

Form: Have/Has + Past Participle (cf. irregular verbs)

Function:

1.   used for past actions whose time is not given/unknown – (already, before)

  • I have seen them before.
  • I have read that short story, but I did not grasp its theme.
  • Have you finished your essay?
  • Morocco and Zambia have already played together.

2.   used for past repeated actions that may happen again

  • They have traveled to Europe many a time.
  • Nabil Lahlou has directed several feature films
  • I have seen wolves in that zoo.
  • Tahar Benjelloun has written many novels.
  • Doctors have cured many diseases.

3.   used for recent past actions whose impact may still be felt

  • There have been a lot of changes recently.
  • I have been very busy lately; that’s why I have phoned you.
  • The students have just entered the classroom.
  • They have recently painted these walls.
  • She has just left her office.

4.    used with a time phrase denoting an incomplete period of time –(today, this morning/afternoon/evening/week/month/year)– for actions that have happened

  • Tom has rung three times this morning.
  • Tom rang three times this morning.
  • I haven’t seen Tom today.
  • Have you seen Tom today?
  • I have seen Tom today.
  • Has the postman come this morning?
  • Did the postman come this morning?

5.   used with an adverb of time denoting an action expected to happen (ever, never, still, yet)

  • The teacher still hasn’t shown up.
  • Has the postman come yet?
  • No, he hasn’t come yet. We are still expecting him.
  • This is the best book I have ever read.
  • She has never gone abroad.

6.   used for actions that began in the past and are still going on – (for, since, always, ever, never)

  • I have always written with my left hand.
  • I have never seen a bison.
  • She has played the piano since her childhood/She played the piano in her childhood.
  • Daoudi has played for Widad for six years.
  • Zaki played for Widad for six years.
  • She played the piano in her childhood.
  • He lived here all his life/he has lived here all his life.
  • He last drank cane juice two months ago.
  • He has drunk cane juice for two months.
  • He hasn’t drunk cane juice for two months.

7.   used to express a past action in the future with another verb in the future simple or continuous

  • I will help you after I have finished.
  • When we have had our exam, we will have a holiday.
  • You will leave when you have finished.
  • When she has had her salary, she will buy a new bag.

THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Form: Present Perfect of BE + Present Participle Has/have been + V+ing (cf. stative verbs)

Function:

1.   similar to present perfect simple function 6;

Used to stress actions that began in the past and are still going on

  • They have been working on the project for quite a long time.
  • I have been waiting for an hour and the bus still hasn’t come.
  • He has been teaching Music for eight years now.
  • They have been dancing since 9 p.m.

à They have always had a big garden.

How long have you known him? They have lived here for ten years.

2.   used for actions that began in the past and have only just finished

  • I am sorry for being late. Have you been waiting long?
  • We have been looking for you. Where have you been?
  • I have been sleeping until you rang me up.
  • She has been singing until she fainted.

3.   used for actions that have been repeated since the past

  • I have written six letters this morning.
  • I have been writing letters since breakfast.
  • The janitor has used the lift many times today.
  • He has been using the lift since breakfast.

à the actions in this use of the present perfect continuous are apparently uninterrupted. We don’t use it when we mention the number of times something has been done or the number of things that have been done.

***** I have been writing (six) letters since breakfast.

***** He has been using the lift (five times) since breakfast.

Practice Exercises

This Practice trains students on how to use Present Perfect S & C.

ANSWER KEY TO PRACTICE ON THE PAST SIMPLE & CONTINUOUS

A- Put the following verbs between brackets into either the past simple or the past continuous.

1- A few days ago, she hid the letter inside her book. 2- He was going to the stadium when he met them.

3- I found this old scarf while I looking for some socks. 4- While they eating some relatives came in.

5- They dancing when they heard a scream outside. 6- There was a bank robbery yesterday.

7- While she was washing the dishes, he was reading the newspaper. 8- Last year, they made a trip to Switzerland.

9- We were sleeping soundly when the telephone rang. 10- She taught Spanish for three years in Marrakesh.

  1. She making a cake when the light went out. She had to finish in the dark.
  2. The admiral playing golf when he received  news of the  invasion. He

insisted on finishing the game.

  1. He was cleaning his rifle when it accidentally went off and shot him.
  2. He was playing the guitar outside her house when someone opened the window and threw out a bucket of water.
  1. While I looking for my passport, I found this old photograph of mine.
  2. The prisoner escaped by climbing the wall of the garden where he was working. He was wearing blue overalls and black shoes.
  3. She said that the car was travelling at 80km/h when it began to skid.
  4. While he was watering the flowers, it began to rain. He put up his umbrella and went on watering.
  5. I found this ring as I was digging in the garden. It looked very old. I

wondered who it belonged to.

  • While I was swimming someone stole my clothes. I had to drive home in my swimsuit.

B- Choose the correct tense.

1- As the stranger was coming to the station, a car stopped behind him. 2- My grandma never watched TV. But she read reading books.

  • I started work at 6 o’clock.
  • He got up and switched off the light.
  • When I finished my homework, I cooked dinner.
  • While we were listening to the news, the telephone rang. 7- Kate stood up and answered the telephone.
  • As I was driving to work last Friday, a car crashed in front of me. I stepped

on the brakes.

  • Yesterday Carol wrote emails from 10 to 11 and then from 5 to 7 again.
  • We arrived in Cannes at 2.30. The sun was shining, people were sunbathing on the beach and big yachts were sailing near the harbor. We parked our car and went to the beach.

C- Complete the story.

Every day James Lullaby travels to London. Yesterday he was driving his car, when he saw a dog in the middle of the road. The dog was watching the car. James stopped and got out of his car. As he was getting out, the dog ran away. James went back to his car. While he was getting in it, the dog appeared again and sat down in the middle of the road. James started the engine, but the dog did not move. James jumped out of the car and shouted at the dog. The dog barked at him and started to run. James followed the dog. Suddenly, he saw two girls lying on the grass. They were bleeding.

D- Make these sentences negative.

1- James heard a dog on the road. No, he didn’t hear a dog on the road. 2- James was riding a motorbike.

No, he wasn’t riding a motorbike. 3- James ran over the dog.

No, he didn’t run over the dog.

  • James threw a stone at the dog. No, he didn’t throw a stone at the dog.
  • The dog was barking at James all the time. No, it wasn’t barking at James all the time.
  • The dog bit James. No, it didn’t bite James.
  • The girls were sitting on the grass. No, they weren’t sitting on the grass.

E- Find mistakes and correct them.

  1. I was doing my homework first and then I had a rest.

à I did my homework first and then I had a rest.

  • My mum was often driving when she was younger.

àMy mum often drove when she was younger.

  • While daddy didn’t look, Susan put his key in her pocket.

àWhile daddy wasn’t looking, Susan put his key in her pocket. 4- I needed to talk to her and at 10 I was calling her.

àI needed to talk to her and at 10 I called her. 5- I saw you with Jill at the cafe. You talked.

àI saw you with Jill at the cafe. You were talking.

  • Your English is very good. Where were you studying?

àYour English is very good. Where did you study?

  • As they walked along the river, they saw something in the water.

àAs they were walking along the river, they saw something in the water. 8- I was taking her to Dover. We had a great time.

àI took her to Dover. We had a great time.

9- The weather was perfect when the sun was shining. But it was changing soon.

àThe weather was perfect when the sun was shining. But it changed soon. 10- When he met her, she wore a hat.

àWhen he met her, she was wearing a hat.

Answer Key

  • This Section offers students the key to check their answers. 

ANSWER KEY TO PRACTICE ON THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE & CONTINUOUS

A- Read the sentences carefully and put the verbs between brackets into either the present perfect simple or continuous, specifying the functions thereof.

  1. I have not written my sister a letter for a long time.
  • She has been watching TV since 7 o’clock.
  • I have never met his parents.
  • They have been talking on the phone for over an hour.
  • She hasn’t called her brother yet.
  • She hasn’t been in class for the last couple of days.
  • We have been waiting for the bus for twenty minutes.
  • I am tired. We have been walking for over an hour.
  • I have read this chapter three times.
  1. The zoo isn’t far from here. I have walked there many times.
  1. She has read/has been reading novels since September.
  1. My eyes are getting tired. I have been reading for two hours.
  1. Ms Jackson has taught kindergarten for twenty years.
  1. The mail still hasn’t come.
  1. I have been waiting for the postman for over an hour, but he hasn’t come yet.
  2. I have given your name to the secretary.
  1. She has always tried to convince her parents.
  1. Have you seen my sunglasses anywhere?
  1. We have asked him to dinner several times.
  • I have often seen him, but I have never spoken to him.
  • I have not paid the telephone bill yet.
  • She has just left the room; her perfume is still around.
  • He has exercised a lot of jobs before enrolling the army.
  • Have you ever seen a lion for real?

B- Choose the correct form of the verb.

  1. I’ve written to the bank twice, but I haven’t had a reply.
  • We’ve been painting the bedroom. We’ve nearly finished.
  • They’ve known each other for ten years.
  • Have you seen the new James Bond film yet?
  • I’ve been trying to call you all morning!
  • How long have you been waiting for the bus?
  • We’ve had a dog for ten years.
  • I haven’t been working hard recently.
  • How long have you known Gerry?
  1. You look dirty. What have you been doing all day?
  1. How many times has Charles visited New York?
  1. She has been learning French words for hours, but she still doesn’t remember all of them.
  1. The children have been watching videos for two hours.
  1. Has he been studying hard today?
  1. My father has never smoked.
  1. Sorry, I’m late. Have you been waiting for long?
  1. We haven’t seen Lisa recently.
  1. He has been writing his essay all day, but he has not finished yet.


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