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Speech and its functions

 Speech and its functions


Speech and its functions
Speech and its functions


The most important achievement of an individual, which allowed him to use common human experience, both past, and present, was verbal communication, which developed on the idea of labor activity.


Speech is language in action.


Language may be a system of signs, which incorporates words with their meanings and syntax - a group of rules consistent with which sentences are built.


The word is a kind of sign, since the latter are present in various kinds of formalized languages.


The objective property of a verbal sign, which determines our theoretical activity, is that the meaning of a word, which is that the relation of a symbol (a word during this case) to an object is denoted actually, no matter how it's presented in individual consciousness.


In contrast to the meaning of the word, personal meaning may be a reflection within the individual consciousness of the place that a given object (phenomenon) occupies within the system of the act. If the meaning unites the socially significant features of the word, then the private meaning is that the subjective experience of its content.


The following main functions of language are distinguished:

  1.  a way of existence, transmission, and assimilation of social and historical experience;
  2.  a way of communication (communication);
  3.  a tool of intellectual activity (perception, memory, thinking, imagination).


Performing the primary function, the language is a way of encoding information about the studied properties of objects and phenomena. Through language, information about the planet around and therefore the person himself, received by previous generations, becomes the property of subsequent generations.


Performing the function of a way of communication, language allows us to influence the interlocutor - direct (if we directly indicate what must be done) or indirect (if we inform him of data that's important for his activities, which he are going to be guided by immediately or at once more in the appropriate situation).


The function of language as a tool of intellectual activity is primarily related to the very fact that an individual, performing any activity, consciously plans his actions. Language is that the main tool for planning intellectual activity, and indeed for solving mental problems.


Speech has three functions: significative (designation), generalization, communication (transfer of data, relationships, feelings).


Significative function

Generalization function

The third function of speech is that the function of communication, that is, the transfer of data. If the primary two functions of speech are often considered as internal mental activity, then the communicative function acts as an external speech behavior aimed toward contacts with people. within the communicative function of speech, three sides are distinguished: informational, expressive, and volitional.


The informational side The

expressive side The

volitional side

Types of speech acts and their features

In psychology, there are two main sorts of speech: external and internal. External speech includes oral (dialogical and monologic) and written. Dialogue is direct communication between two or more people.

Dialogue speech

A kind of dialogical communication may be a conversation during which the dialogue features a thematic focus.


Monologue speech

The monologue doesn't tolerate incorrect construction of phrases. He makes a variety of requirements for the tempo and sound of speech.


The content side of the monologue should be combined with the expressive one. Expressiveness is made both by linguistic means (the ability to use a word, phrase, syntactic construction, which most accurately convey the speaker's intention) and by non-linguistic communicative means (intonation, a system of pauses, dismemberment of the pronunciation of a word or several words, performing the function in an oral speech a sort of underlining, facial expressions and gestures).


Written speech

Inner speech

The translation of external speech into internal (interiorization) is amid a discount (contraction) of the structure of external speech, and therefore the transition from internal speech to external (exteriorization) requires, on the contrary, the deployment of the structure of internal speech, its construction by not only logical rules but also grammatical ones.


Informativeness

Understandability of speech

Expressiveness of speech

involves taking under consideration things of the speech, clarity, and distinctness of pronunciation, correct intonation, the power to use words and expressions of figurative meaning. depends, firstly, on its semantic content, secondly, on its linguistic characteristics, and, thirdly, on the connection between its complexity, on the one hand, and therefore the level of development, the circle of data and interests of the listeners, on the opposite. speech depends, first of all, on the worth of the facts reported in it and on the power of its author to speak. maybe a special sort of speech activity. It acts as planning introduce practical and theoretical activities.


Therefore, on the one hand, internal speech is characterized by fragmentation, fragmentary character. On the opposite hand, misunderstandings within the perception of things are excluded here. Therefore, inner speech is extremely situational, during this it's on the brink of dialogical. Internal speech is made on the idea of external speech. maybe a quiet monologue speech. it's more developed than oral monologue speech. this is often thanks to the very fact that written speech involves the absence of feedback from the interlocutor. additionally, written speech doesn't have any additional means of influencing the perceiver, apart from the words themselves, their order, and punctuation marks that organize the sentence. - a long, consistent, coherent presentation of the system of thoughts, knowledge by one person.


It also develops within the process of communication, but the character of communication here is different: the monologue is uninterrupted, therefore the speaker has a lively, expressive-mimic, and gestural effect. In monologue speech, as compared with dialogical speech, the semantic side changes most importantly. Monologue speech is coherent, contextual. Its content must, first of all, meet the wants of consistency and evidence within the presentation.


Another condition, inextricably linked with the primary, is that the grammatically correct structure of sentences. - this is often a supported speech; the interlocutor asks clarifying questions during her, giving cues, can help to finish the thought (or reorient it). aims to subordinate the listener to the speaker's intention. speech helps convey the speaker's feelings and attitudes towards the topic of the message. manifests itself within the transfer of data and is closely associated with the functions of designation and generalization. connected with the very fact that the word designates not only a separate, given object, but an entire group of comparable objects and is usually the carrier of their essential features. distinguishes human speech from the signal. an individual has an associated idea of an object or phenomenon with a word. mutual affection within the process of communication is predicated, therefore,


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