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Self-esteem and self-confidence

 Self-esteem and self-confidence

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Self-esteem plays an important role in a person's life. From how you evaluate yourself, what is outstanding in your personality, leading, what qualities are capable of bringing you success, what interferes, what requires you to pay attention and constantly monitor - all this and much more is something on which not only depends your career, but life in general.

Self-esteem and self-confidence

The problem of the emergence and development of self-esteem is one of the central problems of the individual. Self-esteem is a necessary component of self-awareness, i.e.

 a person's awareness of himself, his physical strength, mental abilities, actions, motives and goals of his behavior, his attitude to the environment, to other people to himself.

Self-esteem includes the ability to assess your strengths and capabilities, to take yourself critically. It allows a person to "try on" their strengths to the tasks and requirements of the environment and, in accordance with this, independently set certain goals and objectives for themselves. 

Thus, self-esteem is the basis of the level of aspirations, i.e. 

the level of those tasks for the implementation of which a person considers himself capable. Present in every act of behavior, self-esteem is an essential component in managing that behavior. All this makes self-esteem an important factor in personality formation.

More than a hundred years ago, the American philosopher and psychologist W. James (1842-1910) defined self-esteem using the original formula 2 :

Self-Esteem = Success / Requirements

He actually pointed out two ways to improve self-esteem. A person can improve his self-image or increase the numerator of this fraction, or decrease the denominator, since only the ratio of these indicators is important for self-esteem. We create our own requirements and associate them with certain conditions of personal development. 

What is an irrefutable success for one person is perceived by another as a failure. Our sense of self, W. James wisely noted, depends solely on who we strive to become and what we try to accomplish.

Self-esteem may or may not be adequate. Depending on the nature of self-esteem, a person develops either an adequate attitude towards himself, or an inadequate, incorrect one.

 In the latter case, a person is constantly faced with failure, he often comes into conflict with others, violates the harmony in the development of his personality. The nature of self-esteem determines the formation of certain personality traits (for example, adequate self-esteem contributes to the formation of self-confidence, self-criticism, perseverance, exactingness; inadequate - uncertainty or excessive self-confidence, uncriticality).

Special studies have revealed that, all other things being equal, only 35% of people with low self-esteem did not suffer from loneliness, and among those with a high level of self-esteem they were 86% 3 .

Of course, a completely adequate self-esteem, an adequate attitude towards oneself are the highest stage in the development of self-esteem and are characteristic of an adult. In the process of a child's development, there must be some features of the formation of self-esteem, specific for each stage of age development.

A lot of research has been devoted to the problem of developing self-esteem, both here and abroad. 

Western European and American psychologists consider self-esteem mainly as a mechanism that ensures the consistency of the individual's requirements for himself by external conditions, i.e.

 the maximum balance of the individual with the social environment surrounding him. At the same time, the environment itself is viewed as hostile to humans.

 This approach is typical for both S. Freud and his followers - neo-Freudians (K. Horney, E. Fromm, etc.).

 In the works of these psychologists, self-esteem acts as a function of the personality and is considered in connection with the affective-need-sphere of the personality.

From the point of view of Soviet psychology, the role of self-esteem is not limited to the adaptive function; self-esteem becomes one of the mechanisms that implement the activity of the individual.

The works of K. Levin and his students, who were engaged in a special study of motives, needs, the level of claims and their correlation, are of great importance for solving the problem of self-esteem.

As a result of these and other studies, scientists have come to the conclusion about the relationship between self-esteem and the level of claims. Self-esteem and the level of aspirations, determining the state of mind of a person and the productivity of his activities, go through a difficult path in their development and are not easily amenable to change. 

Only the inclusion of new human activities could lead to a radical shift in the self-esteem 4 .Interesnoy from this point of view is the theory K.Rodzhersa 5 .

Personality, according to Rogers, arises in the process of development, and its essence is the individual's knowledge of himself and self-esteem. Self-esteem arises as a result of interaction with the environment, as a result of evaluative interaction with other people. 

The child's behavior and his further development are primarily consistent with his self-esteem.

In individual development, as Rogers says, a conflict can arise between a person's self-image and real experience, which includes both the assessments of others and moral values.

 In some cases, the cause of the conflict is the discrepancy between self-esteem and the assessments of others, in others - the discrepancy between self-esteem and the ideal self-image that a person seeks to answer.

 But this discrepancy is not pathogenic. Rogers believes that the way out depends to a large extent on how self-esteem has developed in the individual experience of a person. 

Some people are unwilling to rebuild their self-esteem and misinterpret their real experience. 

Other people are able to rebuild their self-esteem, bringing it in line with real experience. Other people are able to rebuild their self-esteem, bringing it in line with real experience. 

Flexibility in assessing oneself, the ability to adjust one's behavior under the influence of experience is a condition for painless adaptation to living conditions. 

"Consent with oneself" is of decisive importance for the normal mental state of a person; correct, adequate attitude both to oneself and to one's capabilities.

 Psychologists note the importance of the need for a positive assessment for the development of personality: the individual needs the approval and respect of other people. 

On the basis of this respect, self-esteem arises, which becomes the most important need of the individual. 

Of decisive importance for the normal mental state of a person is "agreement with oneself", i.e. correct, adequate attitude both to oneself and to one's capabilities. 

Psychologists note the importance of the need for a positive assessment for the development of personality: the individual needs the approval and respect of other people. 

On the basis of this respect, self-esteem arises, which becomes the most important need of the individual. "Consent with oneself" is of decisive importance for the normal mental state of a person; correct, adequate attitude both to oneself and to one's capabilities.

 Psychologists note the importance of the need for a positive assessment for the development of personality: the individual needs the approval and respect of other people.

 On the basis of this respect, self-esteem arises, which becomes the most important need of the individual.

In Soviet psychology, the study of the problem of self-esteem is associated with the study of the problem of development and self-awareness, which is associated with the names of B.G. Ananyev, S.L. Rubinshtein, L.I.Bozhovich, M.S.Neymark, L.S. Slavinna, E.A. Serebryakova and others. associated features of self-esteem.

Self-esteem, entrenched and became a character trait, is not limited to the framework of one activity, but extends to other activities. 

An important factor in the development of a child's personality is the assessment of others. The emotional well-being of a child depends on what kind of relationships he has with the people around him, whether he meets the requirements that are presented to him, how much his need for a positive assessment is satisfied. 

How the child's relationship with his parents develops what place he will take in these relationships, his attitude towards himself depends 6 . 

With age, self-esteem as a motive for behavior and activity becomes a fairly stable formation, as well as more significant than the need to evaluate others.

The genetic need for assessment is an earlier education than the need for self-assessment. With age, self-esteem, to a certain extent, emancipates from the assessments of others, and begins to perform an independent function in the formation of the personality, mediating the subject's attitude to reality, including the assessments of others. 

The essence of this function lies in the fact that a person, on the basis of an assessment of his capabilities, makes certain demands on himself and acts in accordance with these requirements.

It must be abolished that the requirements for a child or adolescent from the outside, if they are at odds with his requirements for himself, are unable to exert the proper influence on him. The ability to act independently or contrary to the assessments of others is associated with the stability of the personality.

 If the discrepancy between assessment or self-assessment is long-term (especially in cases where the assessment is adequate), the latter is either rebuilt following the assessment, or an acute conflict arises, leading to a serious crisis. 

Therefore, it is so important to study a person's self-esteem and its compliance or non-compliance with the assessment.

Yu.S. Senchik

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