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 Introspection


Introspection

An individual's analysis of his own judgments, experiences, needs and actions. In contrast to the concept of reflection, which is close in meaning (from Late Latin reilexio - turning back, reflection) - self-observation, reflection on one's experiences and thoughts - the concept of Self-analysis focuses more on the procedural aspect of one's own psyche, is distinguished by the purposefulness and arbitrariness of the process of this analysis.
        
Introspection is an integral part of any psychotherapy. Already during the first conversations, the psychotherapist gets acquainted with the patient's self-analysis, since his visit to the doctor, as a rule, is preceded by attempts to analyze his own mental state. In the first lessons, the doctor not only gets to know the patient, but also makes a primary idea of ​​the causes of his illness. According to V.N.Myasishchev (1958), it is sometimes very difficult to do this, and in such cases it is especially important that the patient plays an active role, and the doctor, in identifying the causes of the disease, relies heavily on his self-analysis.In most cases, in reasoning and assessments the patient lurks delusions and mistakes, leading him to a dead end, from which he is not able to get out on his own.
        
Psychotherapy, as a system of therapeutic influence on the psyche and through the psyche, is aimed at changing all its main areas: emotional, cognitive and behavioral. The special role of the cognitive component in the process of such changes is noted by many authors. Only conscious changes in the patient's psyche guarantee, in their opinion, the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic influences and the stability of their results. The patient as an object of such influence, being at the same time a subject, is active and integral by nature. Any information that conflicts with self-awareness must be internalized by the individual in order to preserve his integrity. In the process of psychotherapy, the self-analysis of the patient usually corresponds to the concept that the psychotherapist adheres to.
       
The proportion of Self-Analysis in the process of psychotherapy is not the same in its various methods. In suggestive psychotherapy, self-analysis plays a secondary role. But here, too, he is a necessary link in meeting the patient, in preparing the patient for the methods used, in conversations between sessions of suggestion, in assessing the results of suggestion (Lebedinsky M. Samoanalysis, 1959). Self-analysis occupies a significantly more important place not in symptom-oriented, but in psychotherapy aimed at significant changes in personality, where the patient's activity takes on particular importance. Depending on the basic theoretical orientation and the applied method, the psychotherapist focuses the patient's self-analysis on those aspects of his psyche that are considered the main determinants of personal development and behavior.       

In the methods of behavioral psychotherapy, the main attention of which is focused on teaching the patient new, more adequate norms of behavior, the subject of the patient's self-analysis is his connection with the social environment, mainly at the level of behavior.

In rational psychotherapy, the essence of which is the logical persuasion of the patient, teaching him correct thinking (since, according to Dubois P., psychogeny is a consequence of erroneous judgments caused by a lack of correct information), logical constructions, constructions, and the search for logical errors become the subject of analysis. ...

In psychoanalysis, which facilitates the transition of unconscious, repressed from consciousness, ideas into consciousness, the psychotherapist directs the patient's attention not to reality, not to the actual situation, but to the experiences of early childhood, to sexual desires. Displaced from consciousness and manifested in the patient's free associations, in dreams, slip-ups, reservations, they become the subject of the psychoanalyst's work. It is understood that the patient will assess the events of his life in a new way, realize the role of the long experienced and repressed, which will lead to recovery.

The goal of client-centered psychotherapy, which is non-directive in nature, is to increase the patient's congruence, openness to experience, and increase the level of realism and objectivity of perception of oneself and others. The psychotherapist only creates a friendly environment, while the patient himself formulates his problems and seeks a way out of unfavorable situations. Introspection here is aimed at feelings, the expression of which in the process of psychotherapy becomes more and more free, at the recognition and differentiation of their feelings and perceptions, including their own "I", the people around them and the relationship between them.

In the pathogenetic psychotherapy of Myasishchev and personality-oriented (reconstructive) psychotherapy of Karvasarsky, Isurina, Tashlykov, the purpose of which is the patient's awareness of conflicting needs and motives, disturbed relationships that led to a neurotic breakdown, and as a result - regulation of needs, the formation of a conscious attitude and the resolution of a traumatic situation , the task of the psychotherapist is to direct the patient's self-analysis not only to his subjective experiences and assessments, but also to the external conditions of his social environment, its features, relationships with people around him.

Self-analysis also plays a primary role in conversational psychotherapy, aimed at understanding and independent change by the patient of those aspects of his personality that impede self-actualization. A characteristic concept in the system of conversational psychotherapy is self-exploitation (Helm J., 1978), that is, the measure in which the patient includes his own behavior and his personal emotional experiences in the conversation, analyzes them and draws conclusions for himself on this basis. The main task of the psychotherapist here is verbalization, reflection of the patient's experiences and feelings, which should not go beyond their awareness, which contributes to the active role of the patient in the psychotherapeutic process.

In gestalt therapy, the purpose of which is to increase the personal potential, mobilize the patient's own resources, the experience of contact with oneself, an increase in the degree of awareness of various attitudes and methods of behavior and thinking that are entrenched in the past and remain stable, as well as understanding them meanings and functions in the present. The task of the psychotherapist is to create situations for the patient to conduct a search and experiment, in which he himself checks what can be valuable and suitable for him, and what is harmful. The analysis of experiences is based on the principle of "here and now" - the patient is asked to analyze what he is currently doing, feels what is happening to him and around him at the moment, with an emphasis on comprehending what is happening and how.

In transactional analysis, aimed at helping the patient to meet the need for optimal contact, the therapist acquaints the patient with the basic concepts of transactional analysis (3 states of "I": Parent, Child, Adult), explains the mechanisms of behavior and its disorders. In the process of psychotherapy, the patient learns to independently analyze situations from the perspective of an Adult, that is, to check and challenge the irrational and excessive demands of the Child and the Parent, to anticipate the consequences of erroneous steps, and also to rationally solve the problems he faces in life.

In group psychotherapy Patient self-analysis is complex. Its content is not only the own experiences and actions of each member of the group, but also his relationship with other members of the group and mainly how, as it seems to him, these others see him. Thus, Self-analysis in the group process is a kind of double mirror reflection of each other by individuals, a relationship, the content of which is the subjective inner world of the communication partner, which, in turn, reflects the inner world of the reflector himself.

In the course of Self-Analysis, the patient encounters significant difficulties, but they also have their own positive meaning. To resort to Self-Analysis as one of the types of self-help in our own development is not an easy path. It requires great determination and self-discipline from the individual. In this respect, Introspection is no different from other everyday situations that contribute to personal growth.

In a psychotherapeutic process, in which at least two are involved - the patient and the psychotherapist, Self-analysis occurs in each of its participants. The psychotherapist, developing this or that psychotherapeutic strategy and tactics, relies on the analysis of his own feelings, judgments about his patient. In some psychotherapeutic areas, the psychotherapist's self-analysis plays an essential role. For example, in psychotherapy of the psychoanalytic direction, the analysis of countertransference is an essential element of the work of the psychotherapist.

Psychotherapeutic encyclopedia.

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